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Block 89, Lot 12

[Formerly known as Block 89, Lots 14, 14 1/2]
Currently known as 222 Broadway, Manhattan, USA

Human Land Use
10,000 B.C.E. - 1626 C.E.

Conveyances
1626 C.E. - 2002 C.E.

37 Exchanges

(Count based on confirmed documents as of 2002.)

Click on red links below to go to pdfs of the original documents.

Major Sources:

[1] New York City Office of the Registrar of Deeds, 66 John Street, 13th Floor, Manhattan

[2] Iconography of Manhattan Island, 1498-1909, Volume 6, I.N. Stokes, Martino Fine Books, The Law Book exchange, Ltd., 1998 (1915-1928).

[3] Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898, Burrows, Edwin G. and Mike Wallace, New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

[4] New York City Department of Records and Information Services Municipal Archives, 31 Chambers Street, Room 103, Manhattan


Human Land Use

10,000 B.C.E. - 1626 C.E.

10,000 – 7,000 B.C.E. – The first people to arrive at the island of Manhattan appear to have been hunters who followed big game into the area as the Ice Age ended, glaciers receded, and the ocean rose. They also appear to have simply passed through the area moving south as the warming continued. [3]

5,500 B.C.E. – 1626 C.E. – A second group followed later, settling into a series of seasonal encampments at various locations throughout the region including a site just north of what is now City Hall Park (Block 122, Lot 1). Eventually known as the Lenape peoples, they consisted of about a dozen small groups who hunted small game, fished, gathered naturally occurring produce and planted small agricultural plots. Although estimates vary widely, there may have been 15,000 people in the area when Europeans fist began to arrive. [3]

    The Lenapes made use of a trail whose approximate route proceeded from Bowling Green and the Battery up Broadway, turning at the corner of Broadway and Ann Street and continuing up what is currently Park Row. [3]

May-June 1626 – The First Exchange involving Europeans.

    In 1621, the States-General, the legislative body of the United Provinces of the Netherlands chartered Geoctroyerde West-Indische Compagnie, commonly known in English as the Dutch West India Company. Capitalized at 7.5 million Guilders, the Company was a corporate entity with sole Dutch rights to develop trade in West Africa and the Americas. It had its own structure of governance and its own military forces. Aside from trade, the Company was able to pay its shareholders massive dividends through the organized seizure of Spanish shipping vessels, a common practice during the seventeenth century when nations were at war. [3]

    Unlike the purchase of Staten Island, which is detailed in an August 10, 1626 deed, there is no extant document of the purchase of Manhattan. Mythology (and a second-hand hearsay account contained in a contemporaneous letter) has Dutch West India Company Director Peter Minuit purchasing, on behalf of the Company, parts of Manhattan in May-June 1626 from on-site natives later determined to be simply traveling in the area. The price was apparently similar to the Staten Island purchase - a technology transfer of “Some Duffies [duffle cloth], kittles [kettles], Axes, Hoes, Wampum, Drilling Awls, Jew’s Harps and Diverse Other Wares” worth about 60 Dutch Guilders (the proverbial $24). [3]

    Minuit likely believed he had purchased a clear, permanent deed to the land. It is unlikely that the Lenape leaders who participated in a later “re-purchase” agreement (after pointing out that the first deal was cut by non-Manhattan visitors) had any such conception of absolute property rights of the kind that Europeans had devised after a thousand years of argument, adaptations and precedents. [3]

    Lots 14 and 14 1/2in Block 89, which later became the site of Barnum’s American Museum (1842-1865) started as two separate unlotted land grants from the Dutch West India Company to Cornelis Van Tienhoven. [2]


LOT 14:

1644, June 14 – [GROUND BRIEF], parcel that included Lot 14, later called “The Shoemaker’s Land.” [2]

GRANTOR: Dutch West India Company
GRANTEE: Cornelis Van Tienhoven

1664, March - [GRANT] King Charles II of England made his younger brother, James Stuart, the Duke of York (later King James II), proprietor of most of the lands then known as New Netherland. [3]

GRANTOR:King Charles II of England
GRANTEE: James Stuart, the Duke of York (later King James II), younger brother
    of Charles II
PRICE: 40 beaver skins per year

     The duke sent troops to seize control of New Amsterdam, taking possession of the city from the Dutch West India Company on September 8, 1664. [3]

1664, September 8 - [ARTICLES OF CAPITULATION] By the terms of the surrender, Dutch settlers were allowed to keep their “Estate, life, and liberty."

1694, March 1 – [DEED] unlotted parcel containing future Lot 14, Liber Deeds, XXI: 31 (New York) [1] The exchanges between Van Tienhoven, The Duke of York and these grantors are currently undocumented. (See Lot 14 1/2 for better documentation - Lot 14 may also have been regranted by York or these grantors are inheritors.)

GRANTOR: Tourbrook, Luerson, Harpording, Santwoort
GRANTEE: Lodwick, Charles
PRICE: £32

1696, September 14 – See T.R. 47, Farm Histories Vol P. Tract Report 478 A – (Shoemaker’s Tract). [1]

1715, May, 2 – [PARTITION DEED] Lots 8-16 but not 14 1/2. Liber Deeds, XXVIII: 128 (New York) [1]

GRANTOR: Lodwike, Charles; Harberdinck, Lieurson, Santvoort, Cloppers
GRANTEE: Partition Deed

1808, August 26 – [COURT DECISION] Chancery Decision confirming title transfer based on an unfulfilled financial obligation of Christopher Steymets to John Steymets, agreed upon December 8, 1768, followed by the sale of the property, Lot 14, Liber Deeds, 81: 98 [1]

GRANTOR: Master in Chancery Carey Ludlow, in case
     w/ Elsworth; Steymets, John
GRANTEE: Ransier, Frederick
PRICE: £500

1808, August 26 – [DEED] Lot 14, Liber Deeds, 81: 103 (5 pages; 3.2MB) [1]

GRANTOR: Ransier, Frederick (executors of)
GRANTEE: Haight, Benjamin Halstead
PRICE: $10,950

1831, December 21 - [DEED] Lot 14, Liber Deeds, 280: 262, (25 pages; 4.6MB) Half interest for creditors [1]

GRANTOR: Haight, Benjamin and wife Catherine
GRANTEE: Haight, John

1832, February 14 - [DEED] Lot 14, Liber Deeds, 279: 330, 337 [1]

GRANTOR: Haight, Benjamin and Haight, Abigail
GRANTEE: Olmstead, Francis


Lot 14 1/2:

1646, March 27 – [GRANT] parcel that included Lot 14 1/2, later called “The Vineyard.” [2]

GRANTOR: Dutch West India Company
GRANTEE: Cornelis Van Tienhoven

1664, March - [GRANT] King Charles II of England made his younger brother, James Stuart, the Duke of York (later King James II), proprietor of most of the lands then known as New Netherland. [3]

GRANTOR: King Charles II of England
GRANTEE: James Stuart, the Duke of York (later King James II), younger brother
     of Charles II
PRICE: 40 beaver skins per year

     The duke sent troops to seize control of New Amsterdam, taking possession of the city from the Dutch West India Company on September 8, 1664. [3]

1664, September 8 - [ARTICLES OF CAPITULATION] By the terms of the surrender, Dutch settlers were allowed to keep their “Estate, life, and liberty.”

     However, this parcel reverted to the English Crown after Van Tienhoven’s death and was re-granted. [2]

1685/6, April 10 – [PATENT GRANT] parcel that included Lot 14 1/2, later called “The Vineyard,” Liber Patents V: 293-97 (Albany) [2]

GRANTOR: English Crown, via Duke of York, via Governor Thomas Dongan
GRANTEE: John Knight


1685, March 9 – [DEED] parcel that included Lot 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, IX: 387 (Albany) [2]

GRANTOR: John Knight
GRANTEE: Thomas Dongan

     Dongan was the English Governor of New York and the same individual who had originally granted the land to John Knight.

1762, July 13 – [DEED] parcel that included Lot 14 1/2, Liber Deeds XVI: 207 (Albany) [2]

GRANTOR: Thomas Dongan (heirs)
GRANTEE: Thomas White

1775, February 1 – [DEED] Lot 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 40: 359 [1]

GRANTOR: Thomas White and wife Ann
GRANTEE: Hopper, Andrew
PRICE: £238

1779 – [CONFISCATION] Lot 14 1/2, Thomas White was an English loyalist whose estate was confiscated by the New York State Legislature according to Chapter 25 of the “Laws of 1779.” Lot 14 1/2 was returned to White’s widow Anna in 1784 (for a price). Since the lot appears to have been sold to Andrew Hopper in 1775, there is a second deed for a second sale to Hopper, dated 1784. [2]

1784, June 30 – [COURT DECISION] Lot 14 1/2, Chief Justice Richard Morris of the State of New York sitting. Liber Deeds, 43: 324 [1]

GRANTOR:
Isaac Stoutenburgh and Philip VanCourtlandt, Commissioners
     of Forfeiture
GRANTEE: White, Anna
PRICE: £3,500

1784, December, 18 – [DEED] Lot 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 42: 167 [1]

GRANTOR: White, Ann, widow of Thomas
GRANTEE: Hopper, Andrew
PRICE: £110

1825, April, 26 - [FIRE] Lot 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 193: 100, 103, 107 (11 pages; 3.2MB) [1]

GRANTOR: Hopper, Dusenberry, Benedict, Newcomb, Hooper, Riker,
     Targee, Wyman
GRANTEE: AETNA Fire Insurance Company

1830, April 23 - [DEED] Lot 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 261: 362, 364 [1]

GRANTOR: Mayor of the City of New York, et al, AETNA Fire Insurance
     Company
GRANTEE: Olmstead, Francis

Lots 14, 14 1/2:

Lots 14 and 14 1/2 combined by Francis Olmstead.

     See Struggles and Triumphs or Forty Years of Recollections of P.T.Barnum, Barnum, P.T., New York: Penguin Classics, 1987 (1869) pp. 94-102 for Barnum’s description of the purchase of the Scudder’s Museum collection and his first lease from Francis Olmstead, dated, according to Barnum, December 26, 1841. After Olmstead’s death, the property appears to have been transferred to Henry Sargent through his wife Caroline, the daughter of Olmstead.

1847, October 6 - [LEASE] Lots 14, 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 493: 611 [1]

GRANTOR: Sargent, Henry W., and wife Caroline, daughter of
     Olmstead, F.; Barnum, P.T.
GRANTEE: LEASE

1852, June 19 - [LEASE] Lots 14, 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 607: 325 [1]

GRANTOR: Sargent, Henry W., and wife Caroline, daughter of
     Olmstead, F.; Barnum, P.T.
GRANTEE: LEASE

1854, May 6 - [AGREEMENT] Lots 14, 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 666: 125 [1]

GRANTOR: Sargent, Henry W., and wife Caroline, daughter of
     Olmstead, F.; Barnum, P.T.
GRANTEE: AGREEMENT

     Barnum’s Museum burnt down in July of 1865 and the Lots are sold to New York Herald owner James Gordon Bennett who builds a new building for the Herald.

1865, December 1 - [DEED] Lots 14, 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 940: 608 [1]

GRANTOR: Sargent, Henry W., and wife Caroline, daughter of Olmstead, F.
GRANTEE: Bennett, James Gordon

1865, December 2 - [RELEASE OF DOWER] Lots 14, 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 941: 649 [1]

GRANTOR: Mayor, Helen C., widow of Olmstead, F.
GRANTEE: Sargent, Caroline, daughter of Olmstead, F.

1872,October 16 - [RELEASE OF DOWER] Lots 14, 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 1212: 624
     (5 pages; 1.7MB)
[1]

GRANTOR: Bennett, Henrietta, widow of Bennett, James Gordon, Sr.
GRANTEE: Bennett, James Gordon, Jr.

1895, May 6 - [DEED] Lots 14, 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 28: 258 [1]

GRANTOR: Bennett, James Gordon, Jr.
GRANTEE: Logan, Edgar

1895, May 13 - [DEED] Lots 14, 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 29: 90 [1]

GRANTOR: Logan, Edgar
GRANTEE: Havemeyer, Henry O.

1936, July 23 - [DEED] Lots 14, 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 3928: 443 [1]

GRANTOR: Havemeyer, Horace and Doris D., Trustees of Trusts created by
     Havemeyer, Henry O.
GRANTEE: Broadway-Ann Street Corporation

1943, May 8 - [DEED] Lots 14, 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 4204: 246. Confirms Deed recorded July 23, 1936 [1]

GRANTOR: Havemeyer, Horace and Doris D., Trustees of Trusts created by
     Havemeyer, Henry O.
GRANTEE: Broadway-Ann Street Corporation

1943, October 22 - [DEED] Lots 14, 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 4237: 380 [1]

GRANTOR: Broadway-Ann Street Corporation
GRANTEE: Chase Safe Deposit Company

1953, June 22 - [DEED] Lots 14, 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 4839: 431 [1]

GRANTOR: Chase Safe Deposit Company
GRANTEE: Chase National Bank of the City of New York

1957, October 7 - [DEED] Lots 14, 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 5017: 28 [1]

GRANTOR: Chase Manhattan Bank; National Park Bank of New York
GRANTEE: Western Electric Company, Incorporated

1959, June 22 - [DEED] Lots 14, 14 1/2 and others, Liber Deeds, 5082: 69 [1]

GRANTOR: Western Electric Company, Incorporated
GRANTEE: Ault, Jesse, L.

1959, June 22 - [DEED] Lots 14, 14 1/2, Liber Deeds, 5082: 73 [1]

GRANTOR: Ault, Jesse, L.
GRANTEE: Western Electric Company, Incorporated


     Lots 14 and 14 1/2 are assembled with other lots and become Lot 12. Western Electric builds the G.E. Building of Communication in 1961.

1984, December 4 - [DEED] Lot 12, Liber Deeds, 853: 1624 [1]

GRANTOR: AT&T Technology, Inc. (formerly known as Western Electric Company, Incorporated)
GRANTEE: 222 Associates

1988, May 26 - [DEED] Lot 12, Liber Deeds, 1408: 1782 [1]

GRANTOR: 222 Associates
GRANTEE: Swiss Bank Corporation, New York Branch

1997, June 17 - [DEED] Lot 12, Liber Deeds, 2487: 1741 (10 pages; 1.7MB) [1]

GRANTOR: Swiss Bank Corporation, New York Branch
GRANTEE: Cap, Inc. (doing business as ML CAP company c/o Merrill
    Lynch & Company)

1997, October 24 - [DEED] Lot 12, Liber Deeds, 2555: 514 (9 pages; 1.4MB) [1]

GRANTOR: Cap, Inc. (doing business as ML CAP company c/o Merrill
    Lynch & Company)
GRANTEE: 222 Broadway, LLC


All Content Peter Walsh 2006
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